In conclusion, several lessons can be drawn from this project that would be useful in designing future municipal solid waste management programmes.
a The solid waste management is not a priority activity in urban low income settlements for politicians and policy makers, sometimes, for people also. In such settlements their priorities are security of land tenure, housing and basic amenities - water, toilets, drains etc. But the poor handling of solid waste is an environmental hazard. In order to have a higher level of people's participation in solid waste management, approaches should be on people-based. Community should not be organized only for a single purpose like solid waste management, but it should be one activity of an integrated community development program.
b The urban solid waste management is primarily about behaviroural change rather than technical and financial. The capacity building at grassroots level is necessary to have behaviroural changes of interest groups.
c When the community is organized into small functional units such as small groups, a greater community participation can be ensured for urban environmental management. The organization of a community into small groups helps to maintain an equally distributed community representation in low income settlements.
c It is not correct to place the blame always on local authority when urban solid waste is not properly collected and disposed. It shows that Colombo municipality is cooperative and even willing to change certain rules when the community is organized and demands municipal service in an organized manner.
d This project has demonstrated that the partnership at local level is working between the community and local authority. Prior to the central government involvement in local administration there was a proper understanding and a clear division of tasks in local government. This project has been able to build such collaborative partnership again for solid waste management.
e In order to local partnerships work successfully, CBOs and NGOs need government recognition. It has been possible for both the CBO and the NGO to negotiate with the Colombo municipal council under a project initiated by the government. When the government recognizes CBOs and NGOs as developmental organizations, local government also willing to work with them as partners.
f NGOs can play a critical role in increasing people's participation in solid waste management and building local level partnership for sustainable urban environmental management.
Non-Governmental Organizations Water Supply and Sanitation Decade Service (NGOWSS Decade Service)
NGO Water Supply and Sanitation Decade Service was established in 1983 under the auspices of the UNDP as part of the international Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade to promote NGO Participation to achieve the goals of the UN Water Decade in Sri Lanka.
To promote NGO participation in achieving the goals of international Water and Sanitation Decade (1981 - 90) to develop linkages and understanding among NGOs, to strengthen the capacities of member NGOs to formulate, implement programmes and projects in water and sanitation in a particular, and community development in general, assist NGOs to develop themselves as a continuing channel of communication between the government and the community to obtain effective community participation in water, sanitation and allied development programmes.
Registered with the Dept. of Social Service No.133/84, and is an approved charity.
NGO Water Supply and Sanitation Decade Service is a consortium of NGOs with 30 member organizations.
Comprises three principal organizations:
a) The General Council of NGOs
b) The Governing Board
c) The secretariat
General Council consists of:
a) All member NGOs - (02 representatives of each NGO).
b) Representatives of Co-ordinating organizations of NGOs.
Managed by a full time Executive director.
Activities of the Service are funded by foreign agencies.
Local - National Water Supply and Drainage Board.
International - UNDP, PACT, IDRC, Water Aid,SLCDF, NORAD, IRC.
Details of Activity
- Promotion of active participation of NGOs in Water and Sanitation based programmes.
- NGO capacity enhancement and skills development through workshops/seminars.
- Promotion of NGO collaboration through joint programmes - `Learning and Linkage programmes'.
- Linking with potential funding agencies.
- Information clearance.
- Acting as local representative for development orientated funding agencies.
- Monitoring and supervision of projects recommended for funding.
- Development of health education material on requests.
- Implementation of integrated Community Development programmes.
- Conducting case studies and action oriented research programmes.
- Conducting surveys and evaluations of projects on request.
Area of Coverage
Activities are spread island wide covering rural, urban and the plantation sector and are carried out at local, district and national level.
- Quarterly News Letter -`LINKS' in all three languages.
- Study of NGOs.
- Women & Water Case Study.
- Directory of NGOs in the Puttalam District.
- Health Manual (printed in Sinhala and Tamil)
- Health Education Materials - Flash cards, Posters.
Application for Membership
To be enrolled as a member of this consortium the organization applying for membership should forward the following information:
a) Status of the organization. (only and organization registered with the government as a recognized society will be eligible to be a member - copy of certificate to be enclosed)
b) Copy of the constitution.
c) Activities of the organization.
After perusing the information given, the Governing Board will decide on the suitability of the organization for enrollment.
- Application forms for enrollment will be sent to selected organizations for perfection and return.
- Membership fee - Rs. 100/- (for calendar year Jan. - Dec.)
Source: Leaflet published by NGO-WSSDS.
(1) Report of the CITYNET / UNCRD / City of Makati Seminar on Recycling in Asia, Regional Network of Local Authorities for Management of Human Settlements, Yokohama, 1994.
(2) Urban Environmental Management through Community and Non- Governmental Organizations, K A Jayaratne and Malraji Wanniarachchi, 1992.
(3) Urban Sector Study - Sri Lanka, prepared for Mission Housing Advisor, USAID, Colombo by PADCO Inc. Washington DC, 1990.
(4) Environmental Management Strategy for Colombo Urban Area, Urban Development Authority, 1994.
(5) Report on the Survey of Squatter Settlements in the city of Colombo, A Karunasena, 1988.
(6) Citizen's Report on Sri Lanka's Environment and Development, Sri Lanka Environment Journalists Forum, 1993.
(7) Directory on Development NGOs of Sri Lanka by Development Support Services of the IRED partners in Asia, Colombo, 1991
(8) Siddharthapura 'A' division Enumeration Survey, Indika Alahakoon, 1994.
(9) Community Based Urban Environmental Management in Colombo, K A Jayaratne, 1994.
(10) Policy Paper, Slum and Shanty Upgrading in Colombo Municipal Council, Urban Development Authority, 1979.
(11) Solid Waste Management in the Greater Colombo Metropolitan Area, National Building Research Organization, Colombo, 1990.
(12) Policy statement on Implementation of Clean Settlement Program in Low Income settlements in Colombo Metropolitan Area, Ministry of Housing and Construction, 1993.
(13) Community - Based Solid Waste Management and Water Supply Projects: problems and solutions compared, a survey of the literature, Justine Anschutz, WASTE, the Netherlands, 1996
Strategies Proposed by CDC and Small Group Leaders
for Solid Waste Problem in Siddharthapura
Why Solid Waste is a Problem
1.0 Waste dumped haphazardly all over the settlement
1.1 Educate people to find alternative solutions. Compost pits on plot
1.2 Agree to a Community Action Plan - Households be responsible for collection, disposal and monitoring
NGO and CDC / Small Group
NGO and CDC / Small Group
2.0 No proper places to dump household waste
2.1 Discourage establishment of common bins and secondary collection points.
2.2 Encourage house to house collection.
CDC and NGO
CDC and NGO
3.0 Irregular waste collection by the municipality
3.1 Discuss with Municipal Engineer to have a regular service.
3.2 To make each household responsible to bring their garbage to the municipal tractor.
NGO and CDC
CDC and Small Group
4.0 Waste management is not a priority in community development work
4.1 Create an awareness among people about the problems of solid waste at settlement and city levels.
NGO and CDC
5.0 No proper access roads and drains
5.1 Negotiate with the government and local authority to get their support to build basic amenities.
NGO and CDC