3.1.1 Location, Population and History


Barangay Pitogo is a 16.3-hectare residential area situated beside the Military Camp of Fort Bonifacio (headquarters of the Philippine Army, Navy, and Marines) in Makati. The place is about two (2) kilometers away from Guadalupe where most of commercial establishments in the area lie and is accessible through five to ten minute tricycle ride from either Guadalupe or Estrella (see Map 3) or through private vehicles via Kalayaan Avenue. It is a dynamic community with a population of 16,000 individuals or 3,071 households. Nine hundred (900) of the households are houseowners and the rest are renters.

Named after the palm trees called Pitogo that was abundant in the area before the World War II (see Slides No. P1), the place was once a part of Fort Bonifacio. It was also referred to as the Enlisted Men's Barrio, since the site was a military reservation camp. Civilians mostly relatives of United States (US) and Filipino veterans settled in the area as early as 1945. When the fort was turned over to the Philippines in 1949 by the US government, the number of settlers increased. Military personnel were given permission to construct houses by the Post Commander of the Fort and in 1986 they were awarded land titles. In 1956, a local Lieutenant was appointed by the Post Commander to administer the affairs in the community until barangay election was held in May 17, 1982.

3.1.2 Physical and Socio-Economic Characteristics

Pitogo is a highly congested place with narrow but concrete and defined roads (see Slides No. P2-P4). It is divided into seven zones (see Appendix 17). Zones 1, 2, and 7 that cover the eastern portion of the barangay are elevated. (See Slides No. P5) Narrow roads in the community usually serve as the parking areas for cars and other vehicles (see Slides No. P6). Due to lack of space for recreational activities within household premises, the roads that reach to the interior of barangay serve as playgrounds for children and hang-out for adults (see Slides No. P7). Open drainage system exists along these narrow roads except along Kalayaan Avenue, towards South Cembo, where drainage is covered (see Slides No. P8).

House structures in the community vary from permanent to temporary (see Slides No. P9). They are closely built with the walls also serving as fences (see Slides No. P10). At present, many of these houses are being renovated to accommodate more renters.

Educational and health facilities are also present in Pitogo (see Slides No. P11). These include a daycare center, a nursery/kindergarten school, two (2) elementary schools, public health center, five (5) medical/dental private clinics, and one (1) public dental clinic.

Commercial establishments like neighborhood "sari-sari" stores also abound in the area (see Slides No. P12). At the center of Kalayaan road is a small community market called "talipapa" which stretches from corner of Sulu street towards Guadalupe Nuevo (see Slides No. P13). Other businesses present also include restaurants/food parlors (12), one (1) pawnshop, two (2) welding shops, and one (1) junkshop.

Pitogo is a lower to middle income community with its residents employed as clerical workers; sales worker; artisans and firefighters; service workers; laborers; private household workers; professional and technical workers; and managers, officials, and proprietors.

3.1.3 Community Organizations

Pitogo is governed by the Barangay Council (the lowest local government unit). It is composed of seven (7) elected councilors with specific committees and the Barangay Captain or Chairman who is the head (see Slides No. P14 and Appendix 10 for names of public officials and committes). Before the implementation of Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 or the 'autonomy act,' there used to be only six councilors. This change, as mandated by LGC, also required reclassification of the zonal boundaries from six to seven zones. The Barangay Council receives funds from Internal Revenue Allotment/share (IRA) from the national budget and from residence certificate fees it issues.


There are at least fourteen (14) CBOs (also called non-government organizations or NGOs) present in the community that are engaged in various concerns (see Appendix 11). These CBOs are mostly socio-civic organizations that are engaged in different concerns like livelihood, sports, fight against drug abuse, among others. Some of them are affiliated to either citywide or nationwide organizations, Of the abovenmentioned fourteen (14) CBOs, only the Senior Citizens Group, Pitogo Sub-Parish, Pitogo Vendors Association, and Siklab Movement are engaged in waste management -- related activities.


Community-based organizations, according to some women residents who were first settlers in the place, played a vital role in the improvement of the living conditions in Pitogo. Pitogo Women's Association, the first group or CBO organized in the community, was born out of the need to establish a community chapel and a health center. When the place was not yet recognized as a barangay, other CBOs were formed specifically to gain legal identity and/or recognition so that political groups running for position in the Municipality of Makati provide them the necessary social services that the community needed e.g. infrastructure services like roads and health services. Another group in particular, the Pinagsama, whose membership include those in other barangays, was organized to attend to their land tenure which eventually paved the way for the granting of land titles to individual owners. The leaders of these CBOs that were active in community undertakings in the past remained to be active in the present organizations of Pitogo. Some of them even hold positions as leaders of their respective CBOs.



3.2.1 Waste Situation Before and After the Cleanliness Campaigns: Attitudes and Practices


The implementation of waste management activities drastically changed the waste situation in Pitogo. Before the implementation of a national government-initiated project on 'Pook Kalinisan' (environmental cleanliness) in 1989, dumping of waste along the streets and burning were the prevailing practices of the Pitogo residents. Garbage collection was very irregular. In some areas particularly Kalayaan Road, wastes were scattered and left unattended. Vendors, passers-by, and individual residents, specially those living near the Kalayaan Road, dumped wastes along the 'island' of Kalayaan. Swarm of flies on piles of rotting garbage was a common sight. This made the area very dirty. Before 1986, there used to be a military trailer van parked along Kalayaan where people dumped their garbage. This trailer van, however, was removed from the community only when the residents, mostly leaders, complained of the matter at the Administrative Office of Fort Bonifacio. Otherwise, it was left unattended regardless of volume of waste dumped into it.

Vacant lots were also favorable places to indiscriminately dispose of domestic wastes. As population grew and as the place became congested, however, vacant lots became scarcer. Some residents employed other method of disposing their garbage through self-help and cooperative work (bayanihan). They dug open pits which when filled with garbage were then covered with soil.


While some areas are dirty, there were areas where cleanliness and system of disposal were observed. Some residents tried to maintain cleanliness through individual initiatives. For example, they stored their garbage in sacks and placed them inside the yard until government collection truck passed by. Retired veterans cleaned the roads fronting their yards, a habit that they said was acquired through military training and discipline since the military places high regard on cleanliness and sanitation.

There were local initiatives to improve the roads in Pitogo which eventually led to the maintenance of the cleanliness. The cementing of narrow streets were initiated by the Barangay Council way back in 1982 through the 'bayanihan' (cooperation). The Barangay Council solicited for funds for construction materials while the Ladies Club provided the snacks for volunteer construction workers who were actually the household heads and their sons. There was also an instance when one resident of Sulu Street initiated the cementing of road in front of his house to provide a safe playing ground for his children. The neighbors who noticed of such initiative were encouraged to do the same. They contributed money to buy materials as well as labor in cementing the rest of the narrow Sulu road (see Slides No. P15).

In 1989, cleanliness campaigns were initiated under a government-initiated project called 'Pook Kalinisan' Project (see 3.3.1.A for further discussion). These campaigns encouraged a wider participation of residents in waste management activities. Placing garbage inside the sacks or plastic bags and storing it inside the yard to await collection by city truck became a common practice. Elected officers for Pook Kalinisan Project demanded for a regular collection of garbage such that collection service by the Metro Manila Authority (MMA) became regular. Collection stations were also defined (see Map 4).

At present, there are no garbage dumped along the sidewalks (see Slides No. P16). Narrow streets of the community specifically along the interiors of the barangay are now regularly cleaned by three (3) street sweepers employed by Pitogo Barangay Council. This is apart from the two (2) street cleaners hired by city's Department of Environmental Services (DES). The city used to deploy six (6) street cleaners for Pitogo alone but the Barangay Council requested to reduce them to two (2). Kalayaan Road particularly the "talipapa" is no longer dirty. Market vendors now maintain the cleanliness of their stalls and area fronting their stalls (see Slides No. P17). The two (2) street cleaners employed by the city sweep the Kalayaan and part of Palawan road daily at 7:00 - 9:00 A.M. and 2:00 - 3:00 P.M. Among households, delivery of accumulated wastes to collection stations is often done by mothers since they are usually the ones who wake up early and who are available to do the task (see Slides No. P18).

Pitogo generates about three (3) to four (4) trucks of garbage a day consisting of papers, plastics, kitchen wastes, among others. Waste segregation is only limited to salable recyclables which are sold to a junkshop within the barangay (see Slides No. P19). Other wastes like left-over food and fish gills are usually fed to domestic animals like dogs and cats or are thrown into canals. There are also a few residents, mostly women that attended seminars on solid waste management sponsored by Earth Saver (an NGO), who practice household level composting despite congestion in the area. They use pots or large and thick plastic bags as compost bags and/or pots.


3.2.2 Existence of Junkshop


There is one existing junkshop in the community owned and operated by Mr. Ely Tulallan (see Slides No. P20). Mr. Tulallan is a native of Bicol region, a place located at the southeastern part of Luzon. He migrated in Metro Manila with the hope of finding a better economic life. He settled in Pitogo in 1974 and as advised by his fellow Bicolanos who were engaged in the same business activity, he started the junkshop in 1976. At first, using a native basket for collection, he went from one house to another buying recyclable materials, particularly used bottles. His business progressed later such that he was able to own a place in Cebu Street and to buy additional recyclable materials from his costumers like scrap metals, boxes, and papers (see Slides No. P21). At present, he employs eight (8) individuals whom he provides with pushcarts and a daily capital of P 300.

Mr. Tullallan's business received moral support from the Barangay Council. The Barangay Council encouraged residents to patronize Mr. Tullalan's junkshop and prohibited other junkshop dealers to operate wihtin Pitogo. It recognized the importance of the junkshop to their campaign on zero waste management aimed at zero waste generation by waste reduction, reuse, and recycling. It also financed the painting of Mr. Tulallan's pushcarts as part of the barangay's campaign for "Pera sa Basura" (Cash in Trash). "PERA" means money in Filipino vernacular and stands for Pitogo Environment Recycling Area.




Barangay Pitogo achieved success in waste management. The place is now recognized for its clean surrounding. In 1989, the place was recognized as a Pook Kalinisan Project. It was awarded the Most Outstanding Barangay of the city government of Makati in 1991. In 1994, it was recognized as greenest barangay in Makati and in July 1995, it received a Plaque of Recognition for Environment, Ecology and Energy by the Premier Bank. Recently, Pitogo received the third prize in the Clean and Green Contest initiated by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) of Makati.


3.3.1 Social Waste Management Activities


The reputation of Pitogo as a clean barangay was caused by the implementation of three significant community waste management activities and/or projects. These include Pook Kalinisan, Clean and Green, and Oplan Tapat-Tapat.

A. The Pook Kalinisan Project Taking the Lead


Pook Kalinisan (environmental cleanliness) was a project conceived by the Presidential Management Staff under the Office of the President of the Republic of the Philippines. This was launched in Metro Manila as a joint project of Metro Manila Authority (MMA now Metro Manila Development Authority or MMDA) and the Presidential Task Force on Solid Waste Management. The project aimed to engage the local community to actively participate in identifying and in finding solutions to their waste management problem. It called for a united effort from community members, non-government organizations, and government organizations.


The Project was introduced to the community in March 1989 through a meeting facilitated by MMA personnel. The meeting was conducted in cooperation with the Barangay Council who informed the residents about the meeting through the zone leaders and their assistants. Those already active in community affairs who were often members in various civic organizations and are considered informal leaders due to their reputed leadership in the past responded to the call. A set of officers was right away elected from among those who were present in the meeting to specifically implement the project. The set of Pook Kalinisan Officers were autonumous from the Barangay Council and could freely conduct campaigns on cleanliness within the community.


The elected officers formulated the plans on how to implement the project to the whole community. The plan was to handle a contest for the cleanest zone if appropriate funding is made available. The implementing agencies (i.e,, MMA and the Presidential Task Force on SWM) then, identified the Rotary Club of Makati Metro, a newly formed group then, to finance the project. With the assurance of a regular garbage collection from MMA and financial support from the rotary Club, the officers effected the following community management approaches:


a. Appointment of zone and street coordinators


Mrs. Guardino, the elected president for Pook Kalinisan, together with the rest of the officers, appointed zone coordinators (only one of the seven coordinators was male) who in turn appointed street coordinators according to their own preference. These coordinators were apart from the zone leaders and zone assistants appointed by the Barangay Officials, though some women leaders assumed dual role. The responsibility of the coordinators was to inform their members about the project and its activities. These zone coordinators directly oversee, monitor, and support the activities of the street coordinators.


A weekly inspection and monitoring, i.e., every Sunday, was done by Pook Kalinisan officers, zone and street coordinators, and the active officers of the Club to monitor the cleanliness of each zone. All streets and drainage were also checked. Bags of garbage indiscriminately thrown along the roads were also investigated. Officers of Pook Kalinisan open these bags to look for evidence that will identify its owners. Those proven to have thrown these bags were asked to report to the Barangay Hall for proper sanctions. Such move was reinforced by a barangay ordinance on proper solid waste management set by the council (see Appendix 12A and 12B).


Houseowners, including renters, were advised to place trash cans in front of their houses so that littering of garbage is avoided. Likewise, they were strictly instructed to store their trash inside their yard until the collection truck arrives. In places where too many wastes litter and residents remain unmoved, the project officers and leaders were the ones who do the actual cleaning (and de-clogging) with the permission of the house owners. With this, some houseowners/renters were moved out of shame such that they started cleaning their own yards.

The talipapa was also strictly monitored compelling vendors to maintain cleanliness in their respective places (see Slides No. P22). Pook Kalinisan Officers coordinated with the City Market Administrator and Pitogo Vendors Association in order to strictly monitor the cleanliness of the place (see slides No. P23). With Pook Kalinisan President as the adviser and Mrs. Paraan, as both the president of the Pitogo Vendors Association and the zone leader for the whole Pitogo Public Market, monitoring was easy. The market administrator also conducted visits and strongly supported the campaign of Pook Kalinisan.


Vendors were required to have a garbage can where trash generated for the day could stored. Placing big trash cans, however, were prohibited because vendors and nearby residents along Kalayaan Avenue no longer wait for the collection truck schedule, but instead, dump their garbage in it. The stall owners fronting this trash cans complain of the discomforts brought by the stored garbage. Also, Pook Kalinisan Officers and coordinators were recognized by the city market administrator to recommend closure of the stalls of vendors who do not cooperate with waste management efforts. If garbage is left unattended, stall owners were strongly reprimanded. Officers threw the trash in front of the stall owner for him/her to realize his/her negligence. The maintenance of cleanliness in the talipapa/Kalayaan Public Market earned the "Gawad Piling Palengke" (A Model Clean and Green Public Market) recognition given by Philippine Organizing Community of Clean Up the World in August 1994.

b. Promotion of the project


Apart from verbal and personal means of promoting the project, Pook Kalinisan Officers and leaders also used posters and/or printed propaganda that they made together with their children (see Appendix 13A-B and 14A-B). Mrs. Guardino, the Pook Kalinisan President, who was once an experienced leader of Pitogo Rural Reconstruction Women's Association used her own influence to engage residents to actively participate in the Pook Kalinisan Project. She encouraged and motivated her friends to encourage other residents, particularly women, to join the project.


The Rotary Club of Makati Metro fully supported the activities of the project, particularly the cleanliness contest. The Club provided the plaque and cash award to the winners of the said contest during the awarding ceremony held at Hotel Intercontinental, a five-star hotel in Manila and location of Rotary Club of Makati Metro head office. Apart from the price for the cleanest zone held for seven (7) consecutive months, the Club also sponsored health related projects like free medical check-ups and dental services. According to Pook Kalinisan President, cash prizes amounting to P 1,000 were later used by the community for the improvement of their zone eg. in drainage construction.

c. Follow-up activity


Pook Kalinisan Officers initiated a community festivity with waste management as the theme. This activity was a sort of a replication of the yearly barangay "fiesta" (festivity dedicated to a patron saint). They adorned the streets with fiesta paraphernalia and held a community program at the center of Kalayaan road. Extemporaneous speech contest and poster making contest on waste management were done, the winners of which were given scholarship grant as prize by the Rotary Club of Makati Metro.

With the efforts of Pook Kalinisan Leaders and the full support of Pitogo Barangay Council, the Pitogo (Kalayaan) market administrator, and Rotary Club of Makati Metro, implementation of waste management activities in Pitogo gained national and international recognition. Pook Kalinisan Project of Pitogo was featured in regular television program in the Philippines called "Magtanong sa Pangulo" (Ask the President) in August 27, 1989 and in the international television programs of Mr. Ian Kiernan of ABC Australia and Ms. Barbara Fyles of CNN.


Pook Kalinisan President (i.e., Mrs. Guardino) likewise, was recognized by various groups. She received plaques of appreciation from the Rotary Club of Makati Metro in 1989 and Pitogo Barangay Council in May 1990 for her valuable leadership. In March 1992, she was recognized by the Mother Earth Savers, an organization that focuses on development and rehabilitation of the environment through media and science. The Women's Environmental Development Organization also recognized and identified Mrs. Guardino to attend in the Women's Summit in Brazil and the International Women's Conference in China in 1995.


To date, the role of Pook Kalinisan Project in implementing waste management measures had been assumed by the Barangay Council through the Head of the Committee on Health and Sanitation. This could be attributed to the inactivity of Pook Kalinisan Officers and members which in turn was due to several factors. First was absence of Mrs. Guardino in the community when she attended the Women's Summit in Brazil and the conference in China. No activity was conducted during her absence since the officers and members of Pook Kalinisan relied on the idea that Pitogo residents had already embibed the habit of proper waste disposal and upkeep of their surroundings.


Second, there had been changes in the administration of Rotary Club of Makati Metro which also affected the Pook Kalinisan Project in Pitogo. The new set of officers of the Club formed new group within Pitogo during Mrs. Guardino's absence. The group called the Rotary Village Core, serve as another recepient of the Clubs support since there were activities initiated by Pook Kalinisan officers for the club to support with. The group also formed to handle waste management concerns in the barangay. The financial support which was solely provided to Pook Kalinisan before was diverted to them. There was no significant contribution however, to community waste management, was allegedly heard from Rotary Village Core. According to former zone coordinators of Pook Kalinisan, this was primarily due to the lack of Village Core members' participation since they were not engaged during meetings. Officers of the Village Core were mostly Pitogo residents who were not active participants in the Pook Kalinisan Project.

Third reason for the inactivity of Pook Kalinisan was the change in national government administration from former Philippine President Corazon C. Aquino to President Fidel V. Ramos as the President of the Republic. A renaming of cleanliness/waste management projects, though of conceptually the same nature, took place. The Clean and Green Project came to be known during Mr. Ramos administration.

B. Clean and Green Contest


This is a nationwide project aimed to promote care for the environment (see Slides No. P24). For Pitogo, this is an appeal and a conscious effort by Pitogo Barangay Council to encourage the house owners/renters to work harder for environmental cleanliness so that the community will maintain the recognition they gained through Pook Kalinisan, at the same time, to compete with other barangays in Makati. As Pook Kalinisan initiated activities waned, clean and green activities were on the fore. Pitogo barangay council conducted activities which help them achieve the Greenest Barangay of Makati in 1994. These activities include:


a. Cleanliness campaigns and information drive


Barangay Councilor Doromal who is the Head of Pitogo Barangay Council-committee on Health and Sanitation and other Barangay Officials went around the community and promoted the clean and green project using a megaphone. They also conducted street dialogues or assemblies to explain the project and the participation of Barangay Pitogo in the contest for the cleanest barangay. The Barangay Officials or Council members, together with the zone leaders went from one zone to another. Meetings were first conducted in three zones followed by the the remaining four zones. This way information about clean and green contest was properly disseminated.

Pitogo Barangay Officials also checked areas that are dirty, particularly drainage and/or canals. As what Pook Kalinisan leaders had initiated, Barangay Officials themselves clean these areas to serve as models for the residents.

b. Greening activities


At present, Pitogo Barangay Council maintains a nursery and compost 'pots' beside their barangay hall (see Slides No. P25). Compost 'pots' which are actually drainage culverts filled with soil and wastes, numbering around twenty (20) are distributed to different parts in Pitogo to encourage composting among houseowners/renters (see Slides No. P26). Compost pots are maintained by three (3) street sweepers and one janitor employed by the barangay. The compost produced is used in planting ornamental plants or given to those residents who asked for it (see Slides No. P27). The Barangay Council contracted out the production of pot that they use in the distribution of plants to the community to be displayed along the side of the road (see Slides No. P28). A new tank for watering the plants in times of water shortage is bought out of the price won in the Clean and Green contest sponsored by the DILG (see Slides No P29).

C. Oplan Tapat-Tapat, Tapat Ko, Linis Ko!

(Operation Front Yard, My Own Yard is my Responsibility to Keep)

Oplan Tapat-Tapat, Tapat Ko, Linis Ko! is a citywide campaign that seeks to promote and strengthen individual and/or household initiatives for cleanliness. This is based on the Municipal Ordinance # 93-172 authored by Makati Councilor Raul Javier (see Appendix 15). The project is introduced to the different barangays through the city's Association of Barangay Captains (ABC). Another way of disseminating the project is through a seminar on SWM called 3B=3K or "Basura ay Bawasan, Balik-gamitin, Baguhin ang anyo para sa Kalusugang hatid ay Kalusugan at Kayamanan" (Waste Should Be Reduced, Reused, and Repackaged for the Benefit Gained on Cleanliness is Health and Wealth). They also distributed sticker, poster, and comics on 3B = 3K. The city through the DES employs personnel to specifically implement the project. No seminar has been conducted in Pitogo, however, but the Barangay Council has promulgated this project in Pitogo by producing campaign stickers. The stickers are distributed to house owners by the zone leaders and assistant zone leaders. Stickers are placed at the gate, fence's post or mail box where house owners can easily read it (see Slides Nos. P31-P32). These stickers are to remind the residents of their responsibility to maintain the cleanliness of their premises (see Appendix 16). Trash cans are also distributed to store owners to be placed in front of their stalls (see Slides No. P33). This is to encourage passers-by and costumers from littering their garbage. Oplan Tapat-Tapat is an on going activity in Pitogo.

3.3.2 Sectoral Participation The Local Government Unit (LGU)

The Pitogo Barangay Council was very supportive in the implementation of Pook Kalinisan Project and at present, is very active in implementing SWM measures (see Slides No. P34 for picture of Barangay Hall). It promulgated and enforced a barangay ordinance that provided legal support to the waste management activities of Pook Kalinisan.


Mr. Hermie Llagas, Sr., a Barangay Councilor, formulated a barangay ordinance on proper waste disposal based on an earlier presidential decree and city ordinance (Presidential Decree 825 and Makati City # 03). He drafted Barangay Ordinance 05-89 which was approved and implemented by the Barangay Council of Pitogo in 1989. Barangay Ordinance 05-89 prohibits indiscriminate disposal of domestic waste and provides for a minimum fine of P 100.00 for first offense, P 200 for second, and barangay court litigation for the third offense (refer back to Appendix 21 and 22). Copies of the ordinance were distributed for proper dissemination through the zone leaders and their assistants and were also posted in places where they could easily be read by the residents.

The Barangay Captain (i.e., Mr. Laurilla), Health and Sanitation committee head of Barangay Council (i.e., Mr. Doromal), and the other leaders in the community promoted cleanliness through modeling and by regularly checking the roads and drainage early morning. At times, the captain personally cleaned clogged drainage of uncooperative residents. For Mr. Doromal, it became habitual to accompany the garbage collection truck in the morning to personally lead the driver on his route and to inform the residents to take out their garbage for disposal (see Slides No. P35). This emphasized the seriousness of Pitogo barangay council in implementing WM measures.

The Health And Sanitation Committee Head of the Barangay Council was specifically attentive and responsive to the complaints and needs of Pitogo residents, making them feel their importance and role in the process. Whenever there is an opportunity, waste management related problems are tackled in community meetings. For instance, there was a common complaint regarding dogs which dispose of its wastes along the road. Pitogo Barangay Council coordinated this matter to the city government to discipline dog owners. Dogs are caught by the city's "Dog Pound" and are bailed for of P 50.00 --- P 150.00.


As part of advocacy work, the Barangay Council continually emphasized the importance of individual participation and the natural effect of indiscriminate disposal of garbage. Houseownders'/renters' initiative to facilitate garbage collection, i.e., placement of no parking sign for identified route of the garbage truck was also properly acknowledged during meetings.

Pitogo has established a strong relationship with the city government such that its appeals are properly addressed (see Slides No. P36 for the ongoing activity of the City of Makati in Pitogo). Mr. Doromal attributed this to his friendly approach when requesting the city government to provide for their needs. Instead of antagonizing the personnel assigned for their inefficiencies, he offered his service to them e.g. coordinate with other agency/city offices to hasten the approval of their request.


On the other hand, those who are fully aware of the political set-up of the present Barangay Council attribute this strong relationship with the city government to the fact that majority of Barangay Council members and leading Makati City Officals belong to the same political party/line . This is why their requests are easily granted. The community affairs officer from association of Barangay Captains or ABC, on the other hand, attribute the quick response of the city to the deligence of the Barangay Officials assigned in requesting and following-up the result of their appeals. The same is true with the rest of the barangays in Makati. Notably, Mr. Laurilla's (the Barangay Chairman) industriousness is recognized in the office of ABC. Zone Leaders

As identified by the barangay council, seven (7) zone leaders and eight (8) assistant zone leaders are appointed based on their cooperativeness and enthusiastic involvement in community projects. Their role is to monitor the zone's cleanliness and ongoing infrastructure projects within the barangay. They can recommend for house construction stoppage if the house owners do not comply with the requirements set by the barangay. If house and/or building construction affect the cleanliness of the area, they reprimand house owners and give due punishments (e.g., confiscation of permit to construct). Zone leaders and their assistants usually monitor and check their assigned areas in the morning. Aside from this, one (1) zone leader and two (2) of the assistant zone leaders were assigned to man the Fort Bonifacio Planning and Development Office (FBPDO) Office at the Barangay Social Hall. They give assistance to houseowners/renters who are applying for water supply connection from National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority (NAWASA) and to those requesting for electrical power connection from (MERALCO),as well as assistance to those needing permit for house construction. The FBPDO also employs a messenger who delivers the documents to the Engineering office for proper endorsement to hasten the release of the permit to construct. The zone leaders with their assistants also distribute letter of invitation when the Barangay Council calls for a general assembly or announcements to all Pitogo residents concerning community affairs like the copy of barangay ordinance, and sticker of Oplan Tapat-Tapat.


To hasten the communication process, each zone leader identified 'communication' leaders for every group of eight (8) to ten (10) households who work with the assistant zone leader specially when campaigning on new activities of the barangay. These 'communication' leaders work on voluntary basis.


Zone leaders used to be subsidized by the barangay alone. They used to receive a monthly allowance of P 600.00 per person from the Barangay Council. At present, they report both to the Barangay Council and the Fort Bonifacio Planning and Development Office (FBPDO). They now receive P4,000.00 from FBPDO (depending on the availability of fund from the office of Makati Councilor Mercado) and P600.00 from Pitogo LGU. Makati Public Safety Assistance Group (MAPSA)/Barangay Tanod

MAPSA members are commonly referred to as barangay tanod because of their uniform (vest with patch named barangay tanod on the left side of the chest). They are hired and trained by the Department of Public Safety of Makati City for the specific role of taking care of peace and order situation in the barangay and in monitoring the waste conditions in the area (see Slides No P37 for MAPSA headquarters along Kalayaan Ave.). They report field findings for action both to the barangay officials and MAPSA office in Makati City Hall. Drivers of garbage collection trucks coordinate with them before collection for a pre set area schedule prepared by Mr. Doromal.


To date, there are twenty-four (24) MAPSA employees in barangay Pitogo with three (3) shifting scheduled from 6:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M.; 2:00 P.M. to 10:00 P.M. and 10:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M. Each MAPSA employee receives a salary from MAPSA amounting to P 6,000 per month. Pitogo Elementary School


The Pitogo Elementary School participated in community efforts towards waste management by conducting specific cleanliness activities, in promoting waste segregation and in incorporating in its school curriculum, waste management concepts (see Slides No. P38).


The students on several occasion out of their classrooms and sweep identified dirty roads on a Saturday in support to the cleanliness drive promulgated by the city government of Makati. This was a citywide activity among public schools in Makati that was done as part of the cleanliness drive, to support and please the City Mayor (Jejomar Binay) on his birthday in 1995.


The school, through its administration's initiative also requires the students to bring plastic bags where they could throw their waste for the day. Some forms of rewards and punishments are also enforced by the school administrator and/or teacher like giving candy to the row of students who maintained the cleanest surrounding, praising and acknowledgment, and scolding to those who do not observe cleanliness.


Last year, the school promoted waste segregation by collecting saleable waste materials from students and selling them to a junkshop. The fund generated from the activity was used to augment the school's fund generated from their canteen's profit for their feeding program to malnourished students. Some of the money was also used to buy plant seedlings. The activity was considered successful that the present administration is planning to continue such effort by conducting the same activity this year.


Last, the Department of Education Culture and Sports incorporated waste management in the subjects of the school curriculum. Pitogo strictly implement this in the following subjects:

Edukasyong Pangkabuhayan at Pangkalusugan (EPAPA / Health and Livelihood Education). Topic on waste management is tackled in relation with physical well being of individuals and healthy environment. This subject also emphasizes that proper handling of wastes is inseparable to achieving good hygiene.


Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika (HEKASI/Geography, History and Civics). To emphasize other uses of waste materials, reuse of once classified garbage is done particularly on art projects.


Health and Science. Waste management is tackled in relation to:


(1) Environmental degradation, i.e. depletion of ozone layer due to burning of non-biodegradable wastes;


(2) The need to be resourceful since sources of most products that we are currently using came from trees and plants. These resources are slowly being depleted; and


(3) How students could help in the growing ecological problem (i.e., segregation of waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials, composting of wet garbage. Students also make use of waste materials during conduct of experiments.


Good Manners and Right Conduct.This is the only subject where a specific session is allotted for waste management. The subject runs for 20 minutes per day. Community Based Organizations (CBOs)


Of the fourteen (14) CBOs mentioned earlier, only Pitogo Sub-Parish, the Senior Citizens Group, the Siklab Movement, and the Pitogo Vendors Association had concrete activities regarding waste management.


The Pitogo Sub-Parish. The Pitogo Sub-Parish is a group of women and men active in church activities. Various activities are being handled by the group for Catholic believers. A Holy Mass is celebrated once every Sunday at the chapel. The group conducts rosary crusade from each house willing enough to house the statue of Virgin Mary for the week. There are also church activities like Parish Renewal Experience (PREX) and Basic Eclessial Community (BEC) at Guadalupe parish that handles spiritual retreats/seminars relating to the Catholic religion. Members of Pitogo Sub-Parish are active in this church activities. The group has also been active in promulgating waste management activities in their own way. The priest, for instance, included waste management concerns during the sermon when campaign on cleanliness was at its peak.


At present the group is conducting a fund raising campaign for their chapel's renovation. Instead of collecting money, they collect saleable waste materials like newspapers, bottles, metals and other items with the end view of helping household owners to get rid of some of their waste. These waste materials are sold to junkshop elsewhere in Guadalupe because of relatively higher prices offered by Junkshop operators.

The Senior Citizens. The Senior Citizens is part of the nationwide organization of Senior Citizens aging sixty(60) years old and above. An identification card is given to the members to be able to avail discounts on basic services like transportation, food items, medicines, etc. In Pitogo, the Head of Committee on Health and Sanitation (Mr. Rodolfo Doromal) also heads this organization. Recently, the group, received a directive from the municipality of Makati to participate in the beautification and sanitation of the barangay. Their activities is yet to be formulated.


The Siklab Movement. The Siklab Movement, a youth organization in which the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) are members, is concerned with sports activities within the community. With the assistance of Barangay Council Committee Head on Health and Sanitation , the group once conducted a community clean-up activity as part of an anti-drug campaign. With the change in the leadership brought by the recent election of Sangguniang Kabataan, this effort, however, was not sustained.


Pitogo Vendors Association. Pitogo Vendors Association is an organization of all vendors in Pitogo Market (in Kalayaan). This unifies Pitogo stall owners to stabilize prices of the products sold at the community market. Through this association members contribute the amount of P 20.00 at the minimum to its deceased members (referred as "abuluy"). The group is also active in waste management activities. Their role was particularly significant during the peak of Pook Kalinisan Project. The association worked on the cleanliness and proper waste disposal in the talipapa along Kalayaan Ave. (Refer to discussion in 3.3.1 on Pook Kalinisan) Their involvement, however, waned when the city Mayor directly informed them that the city has no plan for their relocation when the government project on road widening is effected. (Kalayaan Avenue is part of Radial Road No. 4 (R4) of the Philippines 2000.) This was clearly stated to them when the Officers and member of the association coordinated with the City Mayor. The Brangay Council, nonetheless, proposes a place where the market could be transferred.