COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

IN PATAN

 

Integrated Pilot Project

of

PATAN CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

 

Case :Solid Waste Management in Subahal Tole

 

 

 

 

PREPARED FOR

 

URBAN WASTE EXPERTISE PROGRAMME

WASTE

 

 

August 1996

Kathmandu, Nepal

 

 

 

 

ABREVIATIONS/ACRONYMNS

 

CMA - Community Management Approaches

CDS - Community Development Section

CDO - Chief District Officer

GTZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit

Hiti - Step Well

IPPs - Integrated Pilot Projects

MHPP - Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning

LNP - Lalitpur Nagar Palika ( Lalitpur municipality)

MEIP - Metropolitan Environment Improvement Program

NGO - Non Government Organisation

NESS - Nepal Environmental and Scientific Services (P) Ltd.

PCDP - Patan Conservation & Development Program

UDLE _ Urban Development through Local Efforts

UNDP - United Nations Developement Program

SHG - Self Help Group

SWC - Social Welfare Council

Sagal - semi private garbage dumping areas

SWM - Solid Waste Management

SWMRMC - Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Centre

smc - small and micro enterprises

TSS - Tole Sudhar Samittee or (Neighborhood Development Committee)

Tole - Neighborhood (geographical unit smaller than ward)

UWEP Urban Waste Expertise Program

UBS - Urban Basic Services

VDC - Village Development Committee

Ward - Hamlet

 

 

 

 

DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

 

In the course of presenting the case study some terms that are not commonly used and some that assume a meaning peculiar to the local area or country discussed to avoid ambiguity. These words are listed below with the sense they are used.

 

Solid Waste Management - refers to the collection, transportation, treatment , final disposal and recycling of solid wastes.

 

Proper Waste Handling - means the actual waste which is produced by users by industries and which should be collected properly and carefully transported to an appropriate treatment plant in such a way that it is not hazardous to health and environment.

 

Community - A community consists of people living together in some form of social organization and cohesion. Its member share in varying degrees of political, economic, social and cultural characteristic as well as interest.

 

Community Participation - is the process by which individuals and families assume responsibility for their own health and welfare and for those of community and develop the capacity to contribute to theirs and the community development. They come to know their own situation better and are motivated to solve their common problems. This enables them to become agents of their own development instead of positive beneficiaries of development aid.

 

Lalitpur Municipality (LM) - Lalitpur municipality has recently been converted into Lalitpur Sub - metropolis corporation, however, for the purpose of this study Lalitpur Sub- metropolis corporation is stated as LM. throughout the report.

 

Recycling - is the process of collecting and preparing reclyable materials and reusing the materials in their original form or using them in manufacturing processes that do not cause the destruction of reclyable materials in a manner that precludes further use. Yard waste composting also be added to the above definition.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Executive Summary

Abbreviation / Acronyms

Definition of Terms Page

 

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background of the Study................................................................................1

1.2 Purpose of the Case Study..............................................................................2

1.3 Review of the Literature.................................................................................2

1.4 Overall Solid Waste Management Situation in Kathmandu Valley.................3

1.5 Different Institutions Involved in SWM.........................................................7

1.6 Government Policies on SWM.......................................................................8

1.7 Research Methodology & Limitations............................................................9

 

CHAPTER 2 CASE STUDY ( Solid Waste Management in Patan)

 

2.1 Community Background

2.1.1 Location, History and Demographic Data..................................................11

2.1.2 Infrastructure Facilities..............................................................................12

2.1.3 SocioeconomicEnvironment...............................................................................12

2.1.4 Various Organization Working in Patan....................................................13

 

2.2 Solid Waste Management Situation in the Community

2.2.1 Waste Disposal Practices...........................................................................15

2.2.2 SWM Situation Before & After the Implementation of the Program.........16

2.2.3 Technology & Equipment Used................................................................16

 

2.3 Integrated Pilot Project

2.3.1 A Pilot Effort of PCDP at Subahal Tole.....................................................17

2.3.2 Community, CBO and Municipality Working together ............................18

2.3.3 Proceedings and Activities .......................................................................18

2.3.4 Role of Different Groups of the Community..............................................20

2.3.5 Motivational Aspect..................................................................................22

2.3.6 Incentives..................................................................................................22

2.3.7 Solid Waste Management Activities..........................................................23

2.3.8 Participation Approach..............................................................................25

2.3.9 Impacts of the Program ............................................................................26

2.3.10 Replication Effect....................................................................................26

2.3.11 Sustainability, Problems and Issues ........................................................27

 

CHAPTER 3 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS...........................................29

 

REFERENCES

ANNEXES

 

 

CHAPTER -1

 

 

1.1 Background of the Study

 

Problems associated with the urban low income group are much complicated than those of rural counterparts as many factors like neighborhood pollution, overcrowding, unsanitary condition and poor services effect them to much greater degree. The urban poor remain largely excluded from the benefits of growth and development because they lack productive assets.

 

In this context, WASTE, a consulting company emerged as a non profit organization for development projects in Asia, Africa and Latin America and works for organisations that aim at sustainable improvement of the living conditions of the urban low-income population and of the urban environment in general. It is mainly active in three areas:

 

- Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery.

- Low-cost Sanitation and Liquid Waste Management.

- Community Based Environment Improvement.

 

The focus of the activities is on low urban areas to develop with local residents tools and means for their own development enabling them to improve their living condition, the environment and to create employment as a sound economic base for their future. Addition to this, it aims to play the role of small enterprises and their contribution to the provision of urban services and their integration in the municipal services.

 

In this connection, based on the analysis of the general urban waste problems, recently WASTE has initiated the Urban Waste Expertise Program (UWEP), funded by the Netherlands Directorate General of International Cooperation for six years (1995-2001), in order to stimulate the development of knowledge and expertise in regarding urban waste issues.

 

The UWEP aims at :

 

- generating additional information in waste handling through small and

micro enterprises (sme) involvement .

- improving the environmental conditions of low income communities.

- to develop local expertise by means of research and pilot project and through a

continuous dissemination of documented knowledge and expertise generated from the

programme.

 

 

At present, UWEP is in its inception phase. In the current phase of the program, so far eleven projects have been determined and documentation of existing practices through case studies in three regions namely Africa, Latin America and South Asia, is taking place. Among them Nepal is one of country included for such study from the Asia region. This case study specifically deals with community management approaches applied in community based solid waste management projects in urban low-income settlement.

 

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The primary objective of the study is to analyze and document the community based successful solid waste management project that resulted from the community management approaches in the urban low-income settlement area, in accordance with UWEP aim of generating additional information on waste management. The study further aims to determine the characteristics that has contributed to the success of the project. Furthermore it attempts :

 

- to examine the special community management approaches of the project that contributed towards a success of a project.

- to find out possibility of generating additional employment in waste handling and recycling through small and micro enterprises.

- to find out socioeconomic benefits of the project.

- to focus on five dimensions related to solid waste management that are society

/culture, economics, environment, technology and organisations / institutions

- to determine to what degree does community participation contribute to effective

waste management.

 

 

1.3 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

 

A large number of reports produced over the last two decades highlighted different aspects of solid wastes in Nepal , particularly in the Kathmandu Valley. But only a very few of the reports and documents are about community based solid waste management. As to a researcher's knowledge there is no available documented case study on community baesd solid waste management in Nepal.

 

Some survey reports completed in the past by Solid waste Management & Resource Mobilisation Centre (SWMRMC) look at the total solid waste generation of small shops and household in Kathmandu and Patan . A survey on " Recycling and Recyclable Materials Generation in Households in Residential locations in Kathmandu" 1990, conducted by SWMRMC generated data on recyclable materials and characterize household understanding and knowledge of various aspects of recycling.

 

 

Paper presented by Mr. L. C. Rayamajhi, Deputy General Manager, SWMRMC, at fourth Regional Workshop SWMRMC , October 31st and Nov.1st 1990, states that proper waste handling costs a lot of money which developing countries cannot afford and at the same time the people don't get direct output from it. Therefore, he further emphasized that SWMRMC should think about the cost involved in waste handling and a treatment system as a resource recovery process. At the same symposium, participants have came to a conclusion that " Community Participation being an integral part of SWMRMC's service approach should be fostered not only in regard to waste handling and waste disposal but also in reduction at source.

Study on the physical composition of municipal solid waste in Kathmandu, conducted by NESS Pvt. Ltd in 1990 revealed that the municipal solid waste composition has undergone drastic change in the last decade. Over the years, proportion of compostable biodegradable waste has declined significantly, while uncompostable organic waste fraction has increased. These features point to the fact that the municipal waste of Kathmandu can be best reused by transformation into solid waste fuel briquettes than by composting. By transformation into solid waste fuel briquettes about 85 percent waste by volume and 78 percentage of waste by weight can be reused. In other words the same fraction of waste is reduced in the landfill site for final disposal. This option can not only extend the life of landfill but also provide an alternative source of energy by utilizing unused waste product.

 

Above study has also identified that solid waste fuel briquettes, made out of the organic fraction of the Kathmandu, are of high compressive strength, easily ignitable and has an estimated caloric value of 4,600 kcal/kg. Physical composition of solid waste in different parts of Kathmandu Valley provided in Annex-1

 

The SWMRMC has shown its interest in waste recovery which is primarily based on the possibilities to reduce the volume of waste and thus reduce the costs involved in waste management in Kathmandu Valley. To deal this matter effectively, the center launched a survey relating to recyclable materials in Kathmandu valley, which found out existence of an adequate opportunity for resource recovery . But this study also lacks information in regard to the local and national recycling potentials including appropriate and feasible technologies, new products and markets .

 

 

1.4 OVERALL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SITUATION IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY

 

Kathmandu Valley is the political, cultural, touristic, educational, administrative, commercial, industrial and financial centre of Nepal . There are three Municipalities and 110 VDCs in Kathmandu Valley. The pace of urbanization is very fast both in municipalities and VDCs.

 

According to the 1994 census the Kathmandu valley had a total population of 1.02 million A decade ago Kathmandu was not so densely populated. Migration is an important component of population growths in Kathmandu Valley , particularly in urban areas . The concentration of all social, political, physical , financial , institutional , transportation and communication network in the Kathmandu Valley towns and severe shortage of such facilities in other parts of the country is responsible for the rapid population growth and urbanization of the valley. People come to Kathmandu from different parts of Nepal for either a good education or to find a better profession etc.

 

Due to rapid urbanisation of Kathmandu Valley, Government is unable to cope with the increasing demand for solid waste management which resulted garbage and sanitation situation in a chaotic state. Uncollected waste can be found scattered inside communities, footpaths and along the streets. Management of solid waste is extremely poor and the recycling of sewerage and industrial wastes is practically non-existent.Inadequate disposal of solid wastes poses a risk to public health.

 

Growing income and growing reliance on industrially processed goods have led to changes in consumer patterns. Therefore the composition of wastes is also changing from biodegradable to non- biodegradable. The survey conducted during 1990 revealed that in three municipalities areas and in 34 urbanized VDC areas of Kathmandu valley generate about 480-500 ton of solid wastes everyday. Besides, there are hotels, industries, commercial establishments and hospitals producing a large quantity of solid wastes.

 

In Nepal a waste management system was developed over a decade ago in the Kathmandu Valley. Implementation of organized solid waste management started in 1980 with the establishment of Solid Waste Management Resource Recovery Mobilization Centre( SWMRMC ). A waste collection system for the urban areas of three municipalities with a population of about 0.5 million was built up with technical and financial assistance from GTZ. Compost production and resource recovery was established at Teku in 1985, which was terminated in March 1991 due to local resident's opposition on environmental pollution ground. A sanitary land fill site for the final waste developed in 1986 at Gokarna, northern part of Kathmandu city, which was also closed down in January 1994 due to strong opposition from the people. After that Shova Bhagavati along the Bishnumati River was chosen as temporary dumping site for one and a half year which also ended in 1995.

 

After a great effort from Government and municipality, starting from. 1996 another sanitary landfill site has been selected for waste disposal, at Okharpauwa, which is about 15 kms North-West of Kathmandu city. The Okharpauwa site has a landfill capacity of 4.2 million m2 with possible extension in Keraghari with addition 2.7 million m3 . Assuming the Kathmandu Valley's current rate of waste generation remains constant at 480 mt/day

( 1200m3) it is estimated that the Okharpauwa site will have life of about 96 years which could be increased to about 27 years if 40% of solid waste are composted. ( source : Kathmandu : Regulating Growth, 1994)

In July 1990, the GTZ assistance for SWMRMC ended and the solid waste management operation gradually slowed down as the central government could not provide sufficient fund to operate. Since 1994, the three municipalities and the SWMRMC share responsibility of cleaning collecting and dumping of solid Wastes.

 

Most of equipments, big container and skip vehicles belonging to SWMRMC need repair and maintenance, many of them are not in operation. However, in the last two years Kathmandu municipality procured some equipment and vehicles mostly on donation from India. Lalitpur has some equipment facility.

 

Currently, the waste management service in Kathmandu and Lalitpur municipalities covers about 40-45 % of the total waste generation, the rest is left piled up around the corners of the town, settlements and open spaces. Percentage of unserved areas is increasingly high,. The households which have access to road throw garbage into the road and who do not have access to road throw on any open space, causing hindrances for movement of pedestrians, vehicles, creating unpleasant settlement characters, water pollution and chances of disease spread.

 

 

Waste Composition

 

Waste consists of inert materials , vegetable matter, metal , paper, cartoons, textiles, glass, plastics, rubber, leather wood, bones and batteries To get accurate information, a survey related to the waste generation and recycling conducted by SWMRMC in 1990 estimated that the waste generation in Kathmandu was around 480 - 500 ton per day. At this rate the amount of recyclable materials was 30%, which include scrap metal, plastic, paper and glass at 7%, 7%, 6% and 10% respectively.

 

Total Waste Generation = 500 ton / day

Total recyclable materials = 500 ton x 30 %

= 150 ton / day

or = 150 x 365 days

= 54750 ton / year

then the scrap metal, plastic, paper and glass generation per year is-

Scrap metal = 54750 x 7 %

= 3832 ton / year

 

Plastic = 54750 x 7 %

= 3832 ton / year

 

Paper = 54750 x 6%

= 3285 ton / year

 

Glass, Bottles = 54750 x 10%

= 5475 ton / year

 

 

 

Waste Utilization System

 

Waste is not utilized for composting, recycling or bio-gas production either by SWMRMC or by the municipalities. The waste are allowed to be scavenged before transporting and dumping in to a landfill. Some households make compost in the backyard of their houses to be used in their farm or garden. Treatment or recycling of industrial and hospital waste are virtually unknown.

 

The waste recovery system was introduced in 1980, people from India and the Terai belt

( area in the south of Nepal )came and started collecting the recyclable materials from the waste. Regarding the collection of recyclable materials in Kathmandu there are three processes being used :

 

- people visit door to door where they pay an amount to the householder for their scrap metal, paper or for empty bottles.

 

- pick up the recyclable materials from the containers at collection points, transfer stations and the composting plant ( SWMRMC )

 

- collection of old cars, lorries, broken bottles paper etc. from auctions advertised by offices, institutions and factories through newspapers and journals.

 

At the door, recovery of waste has become an established trade with fixed prices handled exclusively by the Terai-belt Nepalese or Indians. Broken glass is not accepted. Paper is bought by weight and paid in cash (different prices for cardboard and newspaper).

 

Price of used bottles varies according to its size and trademark. In Nepal as there is no bottle manufacturing industry as yet, the industries which use bottles for packaging have to either import from India or from other foreign countries. Therefore, some local industries recollect the used bottles and clean it for further use. As there is a high demand and easy market for empty bottles in Nepal, waste collectors prefer to collect bottles of the local industries and sell it to the bottle dealers who further supply it to the related industries. Mainly beer, squash, brandy, whisky and other spirit bottles are easily purchased by these waste collectors. The price of each bottle varies from Rs 2 to Rs 5 .

 

Scrap metal is bought by weight. Prices depend on the quality of metal (damaged aluminium utensils are exchanged with new ones). Plastics are however not recovered at the door. Used plastic bags are thrown away with other waste and are collected by waste pickers

 

Although materials recovered from waste have increased in volume and in value, the process which is necessary for recycling isn't adequate yet in Nepal.

 

- only 25 % of the scrap metal is melted here while 75% is exported to India.

 

- all broken glass is exported to India because of unavailability of glass industry in Nepal

 

- most of the polythene/plastics and waste paper are processed in Nepal

 

Waste picking (scavenging) is being done from the containers in the streets to the transfer station. Whole family members of some poor family do scavenging. but there are some orphans, run-away children, single women and old people working as waste pickers. They are mainly displaced, homeless, newcomer or unemployed people. They pick up only those materials which are saleable. Collected materials are sold to dealers (it is above mentioned that they are not specialised in one or two materials). Some waste pickers collect different contaminated materials at dumping too.

 

At auctions, the factories as well as institutions sell their scrap to Kawadies (dealers ). Kawadies usually own junk yards where they dismantle whatever they have bought. These junk yards are not specialised in any one item but they deal in all recyclable materials. These kawadies are generally Indian origin people who separate these items and finally supply to either local Nepalese or to Indian factories.

 

 

1.5 DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN SWM

 

A number of government, non government and donor agencies are directly or indirectly resposible for the improvement of the solid waste management services, environment , health and sanitation condition of Nepalese people.

 

National Level :The ministry of Housing and Physical planning ( MHPP ) is the prime responsible Government institution for physical planning of urban areas in the country and the department of Housing and Urban Development ( DHUD ) under this ministry implements them.The Ministry of Local Development is involved in planning and management of municipal and VDC area.

Municipality : Municipalities are local Government formed under the municipality act. The organizations although technically under the MHPP, function autonomously with little interference from the Government. Municipalities have the responsibility for sanitation in the towns. This is centered around the collection and disposal of solid waste, management of public toilets, emptying of septic tanks, construction and maintenance of town's drainage system.

 

Ward office is also an important component of the local organisational structure. In almost all public work and development activities, ward committee are responsible for identifying ward communities need, discussing the needs with the community members. It play a crucial role in facilitating community commitments to the project. Ward committe is a statute body. The Ward Chair is elected in a municipal election every five years. The Ward Chair in turn nominates four of aides from the community.

 

Sectoral Agencies- Solid Waste Management & Resource Mobilization Centre is an only responsible organization in Nepal for the improvement of sanitary living condition through proper waste management system in the urban areas of Kathmandu Valley. Though it is under a ministry of local development it works autonomously.

 

NGOs -There are more than 2700 registered NGOs in Nepal, with 150 at national level with district level networks. Another estimates puts the number at around 7000 registered NGOs both with the Social Welfare Council (SWC) and Chief District Office (CDO) in various districts .The number of NGOs involved in SWM are very few,. many of them are involved in income generating activities and are working in rural areas .NGOs that are solely involved in SWM is estimated at 5 or 6, including the involvement of international NGOs.

 

Donor Agencies - Donor agencies such as UNICEF, the World Bank, UNDP and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation(GTZ). all provide technical and financial support in this area to various sector institutions, municipalities and NGOs. Among them, GTZ has been directly involved in SWM in Nepal for a longer period of time. Much of the progress in SWM system in the Kathmandu valley is the product of GTZ assistance.

 

Private Sector -Private sector involvement in SWM has so far been very limited. Some households compost the refuse in their backyard later to be used as fertilizer in the fields or garden.

 

 

1.6 GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON SWM

 

The existing management of solid wastes relies on an overly centralized approach. With a rapidly growing urban population, current institutions are unable to provide an adequate level of service. The result is that piles of rubbish are left to rot in streets, presenting a particular health risk to children who often play close by

 

The traditional approach taken by the MHPP has resulted in people regarding solid waste disposal as the government's responsibility. With government nominally assuming responsibility, communities have little influence over trying to improve services.There is still a need of environmental regulations that protect people from undue risk of exposure to environmental threats. For example the need for regulations governing hazardous waste and toxic substances such as the storage and disposal of unused pesticides. Beside this there is a lack of laws to oblige households to separate their wastes at source and sanctions for nonpayment of local fees and laws to prevent open defecation in open areas and rivers.

 

However, recently on June 21,1996, His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG/N) taken a major step towards improving the SWM situation and formulated new national policy on solid waste management in order to provide a long term solution of the garbage problems arising from unplanned urbanization. It has duly taken into consideration of mobilization of local authorities and involvement of private parties in the arrangement of solid waste. New policy states that national and foreign private agencies will be invited to undertake the work of SWM. As per the policy, a concept of cleanliness suitable to the local technology and social environment will be developed. Involvement of various NGOs in such campaigns will be encouraged. Solid waste will be used as resource to produce useful materials through recycling processes. It further intend to bring promising strategy to levy service charge to be paid by the public and it aims to introduce SWM as a subject in the school and to develop non-formal education curricula.. Besides this, it is determined to impose fines to those, who violate cleanliness regulations.

 

 

1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS

 

To gather necessary information regarding the study, informal research was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data. This study took advantages of reports, documents, articles and other relevant materials prepared by UDLE, Solid Waste Management & Resource Mobilization Centre and other institutions involved in SWM.. Carrying out this study required contacting many of the Government agencies, NGOs, CBOs, local people of the Patan and people involved in the project.

 

Mainly the study developed into two phases.

 

i) Identification Phase

ii) Detailed Investigation Phase

 

During the identification phase researcher collected many cases that are related to community based solid waste management. Received informations were screened to determine whether they were appropriate to this study . Often the activities on community management in urban poor level was found less intensive, from the available few cases on SWM on urban issues researcher prepared a brief report of three identified cases. Only those cases which had met given criteria as in TOR are taken into consideration and presented and discussed at a workshop with WASTE consultants. Among those three cases, one case on " Patan Conservation and Development program " has been selected for further investigation.

 

The criteria set for selection of the cases :

 

- activities related to solid waste management through community participation.

- activities that are in urban low-income settlement.

- programme that is not in an experimental phase.

 

During the preparation of this case researcher used a variety of instruments to solicit data. Sources of data for the study is mainly divided into two parts

 

Secondary data

 

Basically, literature and both published and unpublished information were reviewed in order to get necessary information for the study. As UDLE staffs are directly involved in the project, most the information from the UDLE have been utilised as basis for case analysis and interpretation. Since case is mainly dealing with SWM , the information and data received from SWMRMC ( only an organization which is responsible for SWM in Nepal) is used to facilitate the study. The projections and quantitative data with regard to demographic status is based on the book from the Central Bureau of Statistic.

 

 

Primary data

 

Valuable primary information regarding the selected case are gathered from key informants, executives, beneficiaries directly involved with the programmes. The semi-structured guidance questionnaire were developed to conduct interview which was very beneficial to get information relevant to this study. Besides this direct observation and field visit of project site was done to get a clear picture of various aspects of the programme and those relevant to social management. It helped researcher to observe the actual situation and to know people's opinion about the program. It would be better to mention here that most of the people in that community were fairly cooperative in answering the question.

 

Several meetings with Mr. Prafulla Man Singh, Program Coordinator, PCDP, was very much fruitful. He had shared his experiences of working with this project and explained many aspects of the program relevant to this study..

 

Limitations

 

Study is moreover limited to descriptive explanation. The study refers particularly to a specific area i.e. Patan on matters of community participation in Solid waste management. Other aspects of waste management is not discussed in this study. Besides that study covers only aspects related to the community based SWM system ignoring the contribution of individual effort and other variables.

CHAPTER - 2 CASE : SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PATAN (SUBAHAL TOLE)