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Textes de référence
provisoire de la Déclaration finale d'Habitat II + 5, New York,
Draft Declaration on Cities and other Human Settlements in the New Millennium
texte ci-dessous est une version provisoire de la Déclaration finale
d'Habitat II+5. Il devrait évoluer, notamment à l'issue de
la seconde réunion mondiale préparatoire (Prepcom II - Nairobi,
19-23 février 2001)
Report of the Executive Director Introduction
1- The preparation of a Declaration on cities and other human settlements in the new millennium was decided by the first substantive session of the Preparatory Committee for the Special Session of the General Assembly for an overall review and appraisal of the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. In its resolution 1/3 the Preparatory Committee requested UNCHS (Habitat), in close consultation with member States, to prepare a draft declaration to be submitted to the Preparatory Committee for consideration at its second substantive session.
2- In order to consult member States, the Secretariat decided to organize an expert group meeting which was made possible by a generous financial contribution from the Government of Sweden, and the support of City of Västeras, Sweden which hosted the meeting from 12 to 14 November 2000All the member States of the Commission on Human Settlements as well as international associations of local authorities and non-governmental organisations were invited to nominate experts to attend the meeting. During the meeting, the experts provided the Secretariat with their observations and advice on the substantive issues which were contained in an initial draft of the Declaration, as prepared by the secretariat, and also on its structure and format. Their recommandations have been very useful in the finalisation of the attached draft declaration.
3- The proposed declaration is organized in four sections. The first section reaffirms the commitments made by Governments and their Partners at the Habitat Il Conference and as summarized in the Istanbul Declaration It also emphasizes the interdependence between urban and rural areas within the overall urbanisation process. The second section welcomes progress made at all levels in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. It is organized along the six headings of the guidelines for country reporting published by UNCHS (Habitat) in October 1999 and reflects the national reports received so far by the Secretariat. The third section recognizes gaps, obstacles and challenges in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. It is organized along five strategic principles perceived as essential in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda viz: awareness and political will, empowerment institutional development, financial resources and international cooperation. The last section identifies a number of further actions and initiatives that member States may undertake to overcome the obstacles encountered (paragraph 18 to 21), to better address emerging issues (paragraph 22 to 26), to improve the monitoring process (paragraph 27) and to strengthen international cooperation (paragraphe 28 to 30).
4- Sections B, C, and D of the draft declaration are largely based on the findings contained in the Executive Director's draft report on the overall review and appraisal of the implementation of the Habitat Agenda which is also submitted to the second substantive session of the Preparatory Committee for consideration and appropriate action (HS/C/PC.2/2).
A. Renewing the Istanbul Commitments
1- We, the representatives of Governments, meeting at this special session of the General Assembly to review the implementation of the Habitat Agenda, identify obstacles and decide on further initiatives, reaffirm our will and commitment to fully implement the Istanbul Declaration and the Habitat Agenda. The Istanbul Declaration and the Habitat Agenda will remain the basic framework for sustainable human settlements development in the years to come.
2- We reaffirm our commitment reflected in the Istanbul Declaration to: (a) ensuring the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing through legal security of tenure and equal access to abordable and adequate housing, (b) adopting the enabling strategy and the principles of partnership and participation as the most democratic and effective approach to the realization of our commitments; (c) recognizing local authorities as our closest partners, and as essentiel in implementing the Habitat Agenda; (d) promoting decentralization through democratic local authorities and working to strengthen their financial and institutional capacities; (e) increasing coopération with parliamentarlans, the private sector, labour unions and non-governmental and other civil society organisations with due respect for their autonomy; (f) enhancing the role of women in human settlements development; and (g) encouraging socially and environmentally responsible corporate investment by the private sector.
3- We reconfirm our belief that cities and towns are engines of growth and incubators of civilisation and that rural and urban areas are interdependent economically, socially and environmentally and linked through the movements of goods, resources and people. Since a substantial proportion of the world's population continues to live in rural settlements, particularly in Africa and Asia, urban-rural linkages are of crucial importance for the sustainability of human settlements.
B. Welcoming Progress in implementing the Habitat Agenda
4- We commend the efforts by all spheres of governments, the United Nations system and intergovernmental, other international and regional organisations and Habitat Agenda partners and welcome progress made thus far towards the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. We take note with satisfaction of the comprehensive nature of national and regional reports on the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and of the analysis of these reports by UNCHS (Habitat) as contained in the Overall Review of the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda (HS/C/PC.2/2).
5- We take note with satisfaction of on-going housing policy reforms enacted by many countries and of the decision taken by the fifty-sixth session of the Commission on Human Rights to appoint a Special Rapporteur on the Right to Adequate Housing and to cal upon the office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) to jointly develop a United Nations Housing Rights Programme (UNIIRP) which will assist States in their obligation to ensure the realization of the human right to adequate housing as agreed in the Habitat Agenda.
6- We take also note with satisfaction of the growing awareness of the need to address urban poverty, exclusion of women and marginalised groups and social fragmentation in an integrated manner to achieve a more inclusive living environment worldwide. Since 1996, governments, international organisations as well as actors of civil society have made continued efforts to improve human well-being and to eradicate poverty.
7- We take note of the development of integrated and participatory approaches to urban environmental planning and management in relation with the implementation of Agenda 21. In this regard we welcome the support provided by many governments to mechanisms for consultations and partnerships among interested parties to prepare and implement local environmental plans and local Agenda 21 initiatives.
8- We welcome the increasing economic role of cities in our globalizing world and the progress made in forging public-private partnerships and strengthening small and micro-enterprises. Well-managed cities hold the potential to maximize the benefits and to offset the negative consequences of globalization.
9- We take note with satisfaction of the important contribution made by local authorities from ail over the world to the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and of the increasing partnerships between central and local governments resulting in improved urban governance. Broad-based participation in decision- making and management at the local level, combined with accountability and transparency are imperative in order to prevent corruption and ensure that the available resources are used to the benefit of ail people.
10- We recognize that the overall thrust of the new strategic vision of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and its emphasis on two global campaigns on secure tenure and urban governance, are strategic points of entry for the effective implementation of the Habitat Agenda and for guiding international cooperation on adequate shelter for ail and sustainable human settlements development. In this regard, we welcome the establishment of the Advisory Committee of Local Authorities and express our appréciation for its contributions to the work of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the préparation of the Special Session.
C. Recognizing gaps and obstacles
11- We take note with great concern of the current conditions of human settlements worldwide as documented in the third Global Report on Human Settlements. Although governments and their partners have made continued efforts to implement the commitments of Istanbul, widespread urban poverty remains and the living environment has not been significantly improved in most countries since 1996. Serious impediments to sustainable human settlements development, many of which were identified at Istanbul, still persist.
12- We acknowledge the gaps in public information and awareness-raising which have resulted in insufficient political will and mobilisation towards the implementation of the Habitat Agenda.
13- We also acknowledge the empowerment gaps in shelter and urban policies which have limited the opportunities for participation and partnership and have made it difficult to upscale good practices and turn them into good policies.
14- We have identified considerable obstacles associated with limited institutional capacities at national and local levels, particularly in the Least Developed Countries. We recognize that comprehensive policies for capacity-building remain to be implemented and that capacity-building institutions and networks require to be strengthened more vigorously.
15- We have also identified serious financial constraints to the national and local implementation of the Habitat Agenda and noted the difficulty to mobilize additional domestic resources for sustainable human settlements development,
16- We recognize that international cooperation in shelter and human settlements has not been enhanced and that the share of funding for adequate shelter and human settlements development programmes in official development assistance has not increased since 1996. Although governments have the primary responsibility for implementing the Habitat Agenda, this decline in international cooperation is a growing cause for concern.
D. Undertaking Further Actions
17- We, the representatives of Governments, affirm our commitment to overcoming obstacles encountered in implementing the Habitat Agenda and to strengthening and safeguarding national and international enabling environments, and to this end pledge to undertake further actions to ensure the full and accelerated implementation of the Habitat Agenda. Determined to give new momentum to our collective efforts to improve the human condition, we here set out further initiatives for the full implementation of the Habitat Agenda and the Global Plan of Action contained therein. At the start of the new millennium, aware of our responsibilities towards future generations, we are strongly committed to adequate shelter for all and sustainable urban development in a globalizing world. We invite all people in all countries and all walks of life, as well as the international community, to join in renewed dedication to our shared vision for a more just and equitable world.
18- We resolve to raise awareness on human settlements challenges and solutions through national information campaigns and commit ourselves to renew and foster political will at all levels.
19- We resolve to empower all interested parties, particularly local authorities, to play a more effective role in shelter and human settlements planning and management. This can be achieved through the effective decentralization of responsibilities, policy management, decision-making authority and sufficient resources, including revenue collection authority, to local authorities, as well as through international cooperation and partnerships. In this context we agree to further deliberate on the proposed World Charter of Local Self-Government with a view to reaching a consensus on an enabling international framework which would guide national legislative reforms in support to effective decentralisation policies.
20- We resolve to build appropriate institutional capacities in all spheres of government to enable all partners to play an effective role in shelter and human settlements development. The management of urbanisation processes requires strong and accountable public institutions able to provide an effective framework to ensure equitable provision of basic services for all. Capacity-building needs to be directed towards supporting decentralizaiton and participatory urban management processes. We also pledge to facilitate the legal recognition of organized communities and strengthen the institutional and legal frameworks that facilitate and enable the broad-based participation of all people and their community organisations in decision-making and in the implementation and monitoring of human settlements strategies, policies and programmes.
21- We commit ourselves to identifying and developing innovative approaches for financing shelter and urban development at the national and local levels. In this regard we resolve to promote access for ail people to open, efficient, effective and appropriate housing finance, to support savings mechanisms in the informal sector, and to strengthen fiscal and financial management capacity at all levels.
22- We further resolve to undertake legislative and administrative reforms to support the efforts of people, individually and collectively, to produce affordable shelter, to promote the efficient functioning of land markets, to remove all obstacles that hamper equitable access to land and to ensure that equal nights of women and men to land and property are protected under the law. In implementing the above, we acknowledge the need for more vigorously promoting affordable shelter and basic services for the homeless, preventing forced evictions that are contrary to the law and facilitating access of all people, particularly the poor and vulnerable groups, to information on housing rights and remedies where these rights are violated. In this connections we note with appreciation and support the initial approach and activities of the Global Campaign for Secure Tenure, working with organisations representing the urban poor and governments in promoting upgrading and regularisation of slums and squatter settlements worldwide.
23- We resolve to intensify efforts for ensuring transparent, responsible, accountable, just, effective and efficient governance of towns, cities and metropolitan areas. We recognize that improved urban governance is essential in addressing the challenge of urban poverty and in harnessing the opportunities that globalization provides. Cities need specific approaches and methodologies to improve their mode of governance, to plan and act strategically in order to reduce urban poverty and social exclusion and improve the economic and social status of all citizens. In this connections we note with appreciation and support the initial approach and activities of the Global Campaign on Urban Governance, including initiatives aiming at promoting inclusive cities.
24- We resolve to promote more determined action against urban violence through a coordinated response at the local level, in accordance with integrated crime prevention action plans. These plans should include a local diagnostic survey of crime phenomena, the identification of all the relevant actors in crime prevention and the fight against crime, the establishment of consultation mechanisms for the design of a coherent strategy and the elaboration of possible solutions to these problems in the local context. With respect to conflicts and human-made disasters we resolve to combine post-disaster rehabilitation with prevention and mitigation strategies.
25- We resolve to promote the right of access to safe drinking water for all and to facilitate the provision of basic infrastructure and urban services, including adequate sanitation, waste management and public transport. To this end, we need to promote autonomous, transparent and accountable management of services at the local level as well as partnerships with the private sector and with non-profit organisations for the delivery of services.
26- We also commit ourselves to intensify efforts for upscaling sustainable environmental planning and management practices and for promoting sustainable production and consumption patterns in human settlements. Integrated plans of action addressing social, economic and environmental issues should be prepared more systematically at city and regional levels. Particular attention should be given in this regard to promoting an integrated approach to natural disaster prevention, preparedness, mitigation and response.
27- We reiterate that local authorities and other Habitat Agenda partners, should regularly monitor and evaluate their own performances in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and that Governments at all levels should continue to identify and disseminate best practices, and apply shelter and human settlements development indicators, To this end we need to strengthen; (a) information processing and exchange mechanisms; (b) information handling and communication capacity among all partner groups; and (c) inclusion of all countries in a system for collection, analyses and use of data and information.
28- We reiterate that international cooperation takes on added significance and importance in the light of recent trends in the globalization and interdependence of the world economy. We therefore call for the political will of all States and for specific action at the international level, including between cities, to inspire encourage and strengthen innovative forms of cooperation, partnership, co ordination at all levels and increased investment from all sources, including the private sector, in order to contribute effectively to the improvement of shelter conditions, especially in developing countries. We support in this context the Upgrading and City Development Strategies promoted by UNCHS (Habitat), the World Bank and other partners of the Cities Alliance and we reiterate our commitment to have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as proposed in the "Cities Without Slums" initiative.
29- We reconfirm the role of the Commission on Human settlements and UNCHS (Habitat) in promoting, reviewing, monitoring and assessing the progress made in implementing the goals of adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development in all countries and in combining best practices, enabling policies, legislation and action plans for identifying illustrative cities for the two global campaigns and further advancing the normative debate on major human settlements issues.
30- We reiterate that the full and effective implementation of the Habitat Agenda requires the strengthening of the role and functions of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) as the focal point for the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. In this context we support the establishment of the Habitat Agenda Task Manager System, designed to allow better monitoring and mutual reinforcement of actions undertaken by international agencies in support of the implementation of the Habitat Agenda.
31- We agree to regularly assess further implementation of the Habitat Agenda with a view to bringing together all parties involved in 2006 to assess progress and consider new initiatives, as appropriate, ten years after the adoption of the Habitat Agenda.
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